Sunday, March 15, 2020

Deviance in Society Essay Example

Deviance in Society Essay Example Deviance in Society Essay Deviance in Society Essay Deviance in Society Name: Course: Date: Hypothetical Deviance Crusade 1. There are different norms that can be violated in the society. For instance, a moral crusade can choose behavior such as gun ownership and seek for it to be ascribed as deviant. 2a). One crusader exudes economic interest. Economic interests are the financial incentives received from participation of the society in addressing the behaviors advocated by the moral crusade. Hence, the crusader seeks to raise his or her economic status by taking advantage of the various methods used to raise awareness of gun ownership. b). Another crusader exhibits an interest in social control. Social control refers to the society’s conformity to norms and rules. The crusader seeking social control attempts to take advantage of the crusade’s advocacy in order to enforce regulations against gun ownership in the society, which will label the act as deviant. c). Another crusader asserts moral superiority as an interest. Moral superiority defines an individual’s declarations based on the morality of his or her actions. By expressing moral superiority in the crusade, the crusader believes that his actions and position on gun ownership as deviant are justified. d). Guilt is also another interest expressed by one of the crusaders. Guilt acknowledges the emotion accruing from violating a norm. Hence, the crusader experiencing guilt will use the group as a platform to defend the past deviant acts he or she performed by advocating for the labeling of gun ownership as a deviant act. 3. The crusaders will frame gun ownership as a criminal problem. This is because the modest rules governing the ownership of such dangerous weapons allow any person to acquire them. Hence, framing gun ownership on criminal basis will be due to the accruing actions arising from acquiring guns. 4. A legitimate claim made by the crusaders relates to the crusade being able to raise awareness on the dangers of gun ownership. The society will benefit because rules will be created to illegalize gun ownership since it increases criminal acts. A normative claim is the flexibility to commit a crime. The rules governing gun ownership are not restrictive allowing criminal enthusiasts to acquire weapons. This will lead to the increase in criminal acts such as robbery and violence in society. 5. The crusade will succeed because gun ownership is directly proportional to the rate of crime in the society. Thus, society will support such a move and class gun ownership as a deviant act. Secondly, gun ownership affects every person in the society, and such a controversial matter can raise the need to create restrictive laws on gun ownership by the government. Gender and Deviance Option 1 1a). Gender, perceived sexuality and bullying are linked because they are responsible for the behaviors young people exhibit. For instance, the male child seeks to prove what is related to his male gender. However, some activities that some males engage in force them to become bullied by other males who refer the activity in terms of the female sexuality hence referring to the male as a girl or a homosexual. b). Bullying has a negative effect on the males. Since males are expected to engage in activities that are masculine, some activities males engage in are considered feminine leading to violence. In terms of gender hierarchy, bullying forces the males to be less confident about their masculinity. This leads to the superiority of women to men since men are viewed as weak. In most societies, men have always been superior to women. Their masculinity enhances their ego and confidence over women. However, bullying causes men to lose their ego and reject their sexuality. c). Boys react negatively to bullying resorting to violence evidenced by the increase in school shootings. This is because boys strive to prove their masculinity. Girls, on the other hand, do not react negatively to bullying since it does not reference their attitudes towards their sexuality since it does not affect them. Furthermore, social norms do not expect girls to prove their sexuality but force the males to do so which contributes to boys’ negative reaction. 2a). Different from traditional bullying, electronic bullies do not reveal their identity through platforms such as provisional email accounts. Furthermore, cyber bullying does not limit the number of bullies, unlike traditional bullying. Cyber bullying does not recognize gender thus it is possible for anyone to be bullied unlike traditional bullying, which is mostly centered, on males. However, cyber bulling provides an advantage over traditional bullying for the victim because he or she can choose to avoid it by avoiding the medium of communication such as the chat room.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Policies and politics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Policies and politics - Essay Example United States of America has developed the policy of social security in the year 1935 right after the Social Security Act was passed. (Rushefsky, 2002, p.100). It was the part of New Deal program initiated by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Previously this act included two social insurance programs including the unemployed people and the retired individuals. (â€Å"Social security in USA†, N.d). The policy at the beginning also included providing federal grants to the organization who worked for child welfare, public health services, vocational rehabilitation etc. But with time the situation changed and the welfare policy now concentrates on few specific social sectors. The policy of Social Security was one of the largest federal programs in the year 1999 and the Social Security Administration had spent over US $ 387 billion that year. (Rushefsky, 2002, p.100) Though that year the spending proportion was huge depending on the social benefits the program actually generates the issue remains debatable. The basic suggestion of this report is to extend the branches of Social Security developments to many social sectors, rather than concentrating on few particular ones. Ascertaining the current financial condition of the country it would be advisable for the United States Government to address the basic social needs of the several deprived sections of the society. It is quite evident that the credit crunch, followed by the financial turmoil had affected the population and many people have lost their home as well as their job. The current social security program includes the retired individuals, disabled ones , survivors of the workers who have died and also the dependents of the beneficiaries. (Understanding the benefits, 2005). This report in particular gives emphasis on the inclusion of the homeless people and the people who have lost their job into the

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Marketing plan for Al Fresco Show 2009 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Marketing plan for Al Fresco Show 2009 - Essay Example These initiatives will be aimed at attracting a variety of people including outdoor enthusiasts and gym members as well as families and the non active ones (Guiltinan et al, 1996). Outdoor enthusiasts include individuals across all age groups who like outdoor events and live actively. Gym members are mainly young professionals who attend gym regularly, especially those who live in cities. Families and non active individuals mainly comprise children and those who do not live an active life. The Al Fresco Show 2009 will be preceded by a number of trade shows such as The Tent Show, The Outdoor Trade Show, Outdoor Preview Show and The Outdoor Show. These shows will be done in collaboration with organizations such as Media Contact Services, Outdoor Industries Association and the European Outdoor Group. The Al Fresco Show 2009 will involve a number of its existing partners such as YHA, Duke of Edinburgh, Girl Guiding UK, Ramblers Association, British Orienteering Federation, Scouts, BMC, BCU. The show also expects to partner with a number of other organizations such as Badger Trust, Countryside Agency, English Nature, John Muir Trust, Association of Long Distance Walkers, Scottish Natural Heritage, AONBs, Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust, Diabetes UK, Canoe Camping Club, VSO, RSPB, and National Trust. The 2009 ve Love the Outdoors Campaign Love the Outdoors Campaign, which was held in 2008, and which allowed up to three children to enter free of charge, will be done again in 2009. This is because the 2008 campaign was very successful. The 2009 version will feature a number of outdoor events. First, there will be an event known as World Theatre where great celebrities including Kate Humble, Bruce Parry and Grif Rhys Jones. Second, there will be an event dubbed Discover Ireland, which will feature Irish coffee, Irish dancing and St Patrick's Day celebrations. Third, there will be an event known as Explore Britain, which will be collaboration with the various tourist boards in United Kingdom. The Wilderness Camp will be aimed at enlightening participants on conservation and survival skills. The event will be held in collaboration with the United Kingdom Girl Guiding. The Regatta Perfect spot is another event that will combine photography and walking workshops. Cumber Arms is a country pub which will also be part of the show courtesy of Jennings Breweries. Another event dubbed Theatre will be aimed at teaching the participants about GPS, navigation and mapping skills. The Bike Arena will mainly involve mountain bike demonstrations. The event will also have a Canoe and Dive Pool that will both have go-activities as well as underwater photography activities. Other events will include the VW Beach Caf, Freespirit Beach Festival, Rock Caf, Climb Zone, BMC Summit Theatre, Craghoppers Adventure Travel, the Tent City, YHA Caving Feature and Water Sports Theatre. The campaign has a number of goals and objectives. First, it is aimed at attracting more families to its show. It is also aimed at bringing new audiences to this show and sparking their interest in outdoor events. It also hopes to get new partners such as the media and other like-minded associations.

Friday, January 31, 2020

Two Works Of Art Essay Example for Free

Two Works Of Art Essay Italy experienced a massive art boom in the early fifteenth century, or as Italians themselves call it â€Å"Quattrocento†. This especially concerns the art of painting, deeply affected by changes, inspired by approaching Renaissance. It is hard to say, that paintings of that time belonged to pure Renaissance, however, their style already could not be attributed to earlier Gothic. The transition period generated a number of painters and entire painting schools each of them with it’s own original manner. This paper is to compare and examine the similarities and differences between the paintings of Gentile da Fabriano (1370-1427), as representative of late Gothic iconographic painting and Paolo Ucello (1397-1475), whose paintings more likely include Renaissance trends. Fabriano’s â€Å"Coronation of the Virgin† (1420) and Ucello’s â€Å"Madonna and Child† (1470) shall be taken as examples. Both paintings can be found in the The J. Paul Getty Trust museum, Los Angeles, California. The theme of coronation of Virgin Mary by her Son Jesus as Queen of Heaven was quite popular in the medieval painting. Almost all the artists of the time, including Michele Giambono Lorenzo Monaco and later Raphael and Velasques   have once tried to depict this event[1]. Fabriano himself turned to it for a few times. The â€Å"Coronation† being described here belongs to one of his late paintings and should not be confused with the most famous â€Å"Coronation of the Virgin and Saints†, painted in 1400. The style of the â€Å"Coronation of the Virgin†, painted by tempera and gold leaf on panel may be called both Gothic and Renaissance. It can be noticed, that Fabriano has been strongly influenced by the Byzantine style, which has been accepted in Southern Europe for many centuries[2], and made artist’s paintings in a way similar to Orthodox icons of Byzantium and Russia. The main characteristics of such combined style, often called International Gothics, are the strict situation of figures and groups, flat plain background and absence of perspective, special set of brightly contrasting colors, including usually yellow, golden, red and blue, as well as vivid symbolism of each object, being depicted. Especially the Italian Gothic, which arose in during the second quarter of the fourteenth century, is characterized by balanced forms and a grave mannerism. Figures are painted against monochrome or gold backgrounds in a formula that barely hints at a third dimension, but never shows it.   Nevertheless, this style appeared to be much more realistic, than the one of earlier centuries. This panel of Christ crowning his mother, Mary, originally formed the front of a two-sided processional standard carried in religious ceremonies in Gentiles native town of Fabriano. In this shimmering image, Gentile makes effective use of the complex patterning and wealth of surface ornamentation that is characteristic of the International Gothic style and that recalls the rich fabrics woven in Florence. â€Å"Madonna and child†, painted by Paolo Ucello 50 years later by tempera on panel demonstrates a breakaway from international Gothic and turning to Renaissance. Ucello belongs to painters, who first started experimenting with one of the basic elements of new art style – linear prospective. This even caused the famous Italian expert of arts Vazari to call Ucello â€Å"an eccentric† and add, that he has been â€Å"intoxicated† by prospective. At the picture we can see the green meadows, yellow fields and blue skies, spreading up to horizon behind Virgin’s back. In contrast to Byzantium and Gothic art, which is almost always â€Å"frozen out of time and space†, now it is possible to identify the place, time of year and often even time of day, which brings an element of action and development to the painting, although prospective   still remains more an element of decoration. The new style is also characterized by increased volume of figures, and a depth of emotion which suggests human feeling instead of static and passive icons[3]. The medieval tradition of using religious subjects is now combined   with classical ideals of the human figure and an increased interest in depicting nature. In contrast to International Gothic, the colors become more varied and not so dramatic, with more overtones being used. â€Å"Coronation of the Virgin† belongs to one of the few surviving Fabriano’s masterpieces, since most of his early paintings and frescos have been destroyed[4]. Gentiles most famous surviving works were made during a short but influential stay in Florence in the 1420s, where he probably encountered the austere realism of his younger contemporary Masaccio. This golden picture is almost entirely taken up by the symmetrical figures of the seated Christ on the right, placing a bejeweled golden crown on the inclined head of the Virgin Mary, who sits on the left, her hands crossed over her chest. Above them, centered in the rays of a golden sunburst, hovers a white dove with grey-tipped wings and bearing a halo. Standing below and beside the figures, three miniature angels are aligned in two vertical rows. The Christ is wearing a medieval-style tunic of gold gathered at the waist by a narrow golden sash. The garment is embroidered with five-pointed golden stars, surrounded by stars of blue, and encircled by red stars. Falling from his shoulders as he raises his arms is a rich burgundy gown bordered in patterned gold, bearing vines with golden leaves and five-petaled golden flowers with hearts of blue. The Virgins gown, which she holds close to her, has tightly-clustered seven-petaled floral pinwheels of gold over a background of royal blue. Behind the two figures, from their shoulders down, flows a patterned dark green tapestry reminiscent of Christs robe with its five-pointed snowflakes of red and gold. The figures and the background, absent of depth, are laid virtually flat against each another. Standing in the lower corners on either side, the angels, partially obscuring each other in descending columns, look upward toward the figures of Mary and Christ, their lips open in song, their hands holding an unfurled white parchment ribbon with musical notes and Latin words that wind in and out of view. The hands and faces of the principal figures are painted realistically in a greyish pink, making their skin ashen, and their placid, almost expressionless features, look otherworldly, in great contrast to the richly-tooled golden crown, the embossed halos, and opulent, embellished fabrics. Presiding over all this, Christs uplifted hands, in the moment between setting the crown and blessing the Virgin Mary, are set against a broad sheet of pure gold that rises behind the figures until it vanishes under a gilded arch of carved leaves supported by spiral columnsan ornately-carved wooden frame through which we view the coronation. To create a sumptuous surface resembling tapestry, Gentile da Fabriano used extensive tooling, decorative patterning, gold leaf, and rich pigments. Considerable features of International Gothic Style can be noticed on the painting, including complex patterning, elaborate materials, and long flowing lines of the robes of the Madonna and Christ[5]. At the time the gold-encrusted panel functioned as a processional standard held aloft in parades that honored the Virgin Mary and originally depicted The Stigmatization of Saint Francis on the reverse. The centre of the composition is formed by the hands of Saviour, raised to bless his Mother and put a crown on her head, which contrasts to the painting of Ucello, where centre is formed by faces of Mary and Christ. The two pictures represent different approaches towards position of head and eyes of the figures. The Gothic style pays almost no attention to eye contact of the depicted person with a spectator, and the eyes of the Saints are always in a way divert. In Fabriano’s case the Virgin is looking down, vailing before her Son, while Jesus is looking directly at Mary. In contrast, the painting by Ucello brings in a brilliant example of fresh Renaissance relationship between the figure and the spectator. His Mary and Child are looking closely at the spectator and it seems, that they are trying to see that what is behind his outlook and spot his soul. Both paintings are deeply symbolic. The most recognizable Fabriano’s symbol is, definitely, the white dove over Madonna’s head, symbolizing the Holy Spirit, descending upon her. The red color of the gown, falling down from Christ’s shoulders, is a symbol of His Oblation to the humanity and it’s green backing, noticeable on top, is to point on the Resurrection. Finally, the golden color of Jesus tunic is to prove him as the Heavenly King. The clothes of the Virgin are depicted golden and blue, symbolizing   divinity, combined with purity and faith. The nimbuses of both figures are almost invisible in the golden light, streaming through heaven. The symbolism of Ucello’s â€Å"Madonna† is not so sophisticated as Gothic one. The divine Child is depicted, holding his mother’s clothes with his fingers, which is to hint the connection between them. The nimbuses of both figures differ, since the nimbus of Christ includes a cross – a traditional element of earlier iconographic schemes. This cross is red, once again symbolizing Christ’s Oblation[6]. In the years which passed between the creation of these two paintings, the ideas of humanism changed the attitude to human’s body. Fabriano covered the corpses of both figures with reach adorable dresses, leaving no space to any bodily features. In contrast, Ucello’s Madonna and Child displays a type of hushed beauty lost with the advent of the High Renaissance style in Italy. Her face and the body of the child are still pallid and far from Raphael’s vision, however, the Maid is depicted as a beautiful woman with golden hair, appearing from under her modest mantle. While Fabriano used medieval monochromic background, Ucello is one of the first artists, who used landscape to underline prospective in three well-rounded dimensions. Painting now becomes a window on the physical world rather than merely the spiritual one. In an effort to open up the scene, the artist from Paolo Uccellos workshop placed a landscape behind the Virgin and Christ. Instead of trying to show depth, however, the countryside simply forms a pattern of almost abstract trees and zigzags. The resulting design has a flatness and regularity that subtly enlivens the picture and complements the elusive three-dimensionality of the figure group.   Summarizing the overstated one can say that the two discussed may be found both similar and difficult. They are noticeable examples of corresponding painting styles – namely International Gothic and Early Renaissance. Being connected by the religious topic and symbolic filling, they differ in attitude between the characters and the spectator, the special position of figures and attempt to use a prospective in the later work, as well as use of more pigments and tones. It should be pointed, that Ucello’s   perspective studies were to influence the Renaissance art treatises of artists such as Piero della Francesca, Leonardo da Vinci, and Albrecht Dà ¼rer[7]. Due to the changed attitude and eye contact, Jesus and Madonna by Ucello seem to be much closer to us and more human, than Jesus and Madonna by Fabriano, which embodies the ideals of upcoming era of Renaissance. REFERENCES Bernhard Berenson., The Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance. 2nd New York: G. P. Putnams Sons, 1909 Germain Bazin., Italian Painting in the XIVth and XVth Centuries. New York: French and European Publications, 1938 Michael Levey., A Concise History of Painting: From Giotto to Cezanne. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1962 Linda Murray, Peter Murray., The Art of the Renaissance. New York: Praeger, 1963 Frank Jewett Mather Jr., A History of Italian Painting. New York: Henry Holt, 1923 [1] Bernhard Berenson., The Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance. 2nd ed. New York: G. P. Putnams Sons, 1909, at p. 131 [2] Germain Bazin., Italian Painting in the XIVth and XVth Centuries. New York: French and European Publications, 1938, at p. 26 [3] Bernhard Berenson., supra note, at p. 133 [4] Michael Levey., A Concise History of Painting: From Giotto to Cezanne. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1962 at p. 44 [5] Linda Murray, Peter Murray., The Art of the Renaissance. New York: Praeger, 1963, at p. 257 [6] Germain Bazin., supra note at p. 29 [7] Frank Jewett Mather Jr., A History of Italian Painting. New York: Henry Holt, 1923, at p. 144

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Generations Essay -- Sociology, Baby Boomers

Generations at Work The dynamics associated with working with people in an office, department, or organization are difficult to classify or explain. Also, personalities, positions, ages, and values are all aspects of how people relate in order to get the job done. Moreover, each generation brings elements and distinct predilections to the work environment. Thus, the four generations represented in today’s workforce is examined. My Generation People born between 1946 and 1964 are classified in American society as baby boomers. I found out in my thirties that I was part of this generation. While I had heard of the term growing up it never occurred to me that I was a member, especially since I barely qualify. According to a survey conducted by Pew Social & Demographic Trends Project, baby boomers are the gloomiest generation. Moreover, their outlook on everything from health, finances, and quality of life is bleak (Cohn, 2008). However, some experts refute this assessment. They maintain baby boomers also referred to as the â€Å"Me† generation, are competitive, self-sufficient and are called are considered workaholics. Hence, their serious work ethic prompted many to remain in the workforce longer than expected. Consequently, baby boomers stay on the job in some capacity typically as part-time workers to sustain a certain level of income to support hobbies and other non-career interests (Cordington, 2010). Clearly, some baby boomers have a sense of despair heightened by a combined dread of aging and loss of income (Cohn, 2008). Although this generation’s median household income is more than adults 25 to 44 ($53,000) and adults 65 and over ($30,000), transitioning to a fixed income with increased medical bills is... ... â€Å"While older workers make more errors, perhaps due to declining physical attributes, they hardly make an severe errors, perhaps due to more experience,† (Fernandez, 2011, p.1). Ironically, the skills older workers have are too specific and unique to fit the needs of today’s multi-layer positions. Therefore, multi-dimensional, computer savvy younger workers, weaned on cutting edge technology are preferred (â€Å"The New York Times,† 2009). Conclusion The four generations represented in today’s workforce have tendencies perceptions and misconceptions about the other that can hamper work relationships. However, each group brings capabilities, beliefs, and values necessary to make a company successful. Hence, the creativity, innovations, and ingenuity indicative of the American workforce are due in no small part to tolerating the gaps perceived in each generation. Generations Essay -- Sociology, Baby Boomers Generations at Work The dynamics associated with working with people in an office, department, or organization are difficult to classify or explain. Also, personalities, positions, ages, and values are all aspects of how people relate in order to get the job done. Moreover, each generation brings elements and distinct predilections to the work environment. Thus, the four generations represented in today’s workforce is examined. My Generation People born between 1946 and 1964 are classified in American society as baby boomers. I found out in my thirties that I was part of this generation. While I had heard of the term growing up it never occurred to me that I was a member, especially since I barely qualify. According to a survey conducted by Pew Social & Demographic Trends Project, baby boomers are the gloomiest generation. Moreover, their outlook on everything from health, finances, and quality of life is bleak (Cohn, 2008). However, some experts refute this assessment. They maintain baby boomers also referred to as the â€Å"Me† generation, are competitive, self-sufficient and are called are considered workaholics. Hence, their serious work ethic prompted many to remain in the workforce longer than expected. Consequently, baby boomers stay on the job in some capacity typically as part-time workers to sustain a certain level of income to support hobbies and other non-career interests (Cordington, 2010). Clearly, some baby boomers have a sense of despair heightened by a combined dread of aging and loss of income (Cohn, 2008). Although this generation’s median household income is more than adults 25 to 44 ($53,000) and adults 65 and over ($30,000), transitioning to a fixed income with increased medical bills is... ... â€Å"While older workers make more errors, perhaps due to declining physical attributes, they hardly make an severe errors, perhaps due to more experience,† (Fernandez, 2011, p.1). Ironically, the skills older workers have are too specific and unique to fit the needs of today’s multi-layer positions. Therefore, multi-dimensional, computer savvy younger workers, weaned on cutting edge technology are preferred (â€Å"The New York Times,† 2009). Conclusion The four generations represented in today’s workforce have tendencies perceptions and misconceptions about the other that can hamper work relationships. However, each group brings capabilities, beliefs, and values necessary to make a company successful. Hence, the creativity, innovations, and ingenuity indicative of the American workforce are due in no small part to tolerating the gaps perceived in each generation.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Euthanasia: Suffering and Powerful Pain Relief

One of the reasons that some people believe that euthanasia is morally okay is that if people with a terminal illness want to die, you should let them. Others will argue that life is a gift from God and that another human shouldn’t interfere with God’s will even if they are begged to help. An example of this is in the Bible. Thou shalt not kill is one of the Ten Commandments so it is therefore a fundamental tenet of the Christian and Jewish religions, but is it really murder?Euthanasia can help family members, relatives and carers to end the dreadful pain and suffering that their loved ones have to endure. It sometimes seems the kindest thing to do. However one could argue that with more powerful pain relief and dedicated hospices, pain should be controlled. Another reason against euthanasia is that in hospitals it could destroy the relationship and trust between the patient and the doctor. Also is it really fair to put the Doctor in the position of having to make such a key decision?Surely if God gave life then only he can decide when to take it back. The major argument against euthanasia in my opinion is that if it is legal it could be subject to a great deal of abuse, such as relatives not wanting to bother anymore or getting their hands on someone’s will. Even Doctors could be tempted to hurry along a patient’s death in order to harvest their organs for a younger patient. It is a bit like the argument for Capital punishment, what if you hang the wrong man, similarly what if the man who has been in a coma for years suddenly awakes?Life is precious and it should not be devalued and if taken to it’s extreme in the hands of a person such as Hitler, euthanasia could stop being a choice but something that is enforced. In conclusion I think euthanasia should be allowed as if people want to die and they cannot do it for themselves they should be given help to die with dignity, surrounded by their loved ones, in their own home, not in some impersonal clinic in Switzerland. At the end of the day I believe in freedom of choice.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Key Executive Choice Points For Retroactive Claim Processing

As the Chief of the Process Program Management (PPM) for Individuals in Accounts Management (AM), I successfully provide consistent critical guidance, direction, and support to the AM Field directorates as well as the WI headquarters executive staff. I also provided outstanding leadership to ensure several of the PATH Act components were enacted and implented. I developed the key executive choice points for retroactive claim processing that were elevated and approved by the commissioner for the retroactive claim processing. I also created instructions, manager talking papers, and technical guidance for the ITIN deactivation. I have worked collaboratively with my peer stakeholders such as the Office of Taxpayer Correspondence (OTC),†¦show more content†¦Due in part to these efforts, AM was able to maintain a 100% closure to receipt ratio for the IMF programs for the year and a 119% ratio in the July-Sept period when we were out in the field. This has been accomplished d espite hiring challenges, maintaining a high Level of Service for our telephones through the filing season, and the staffing deficits on the PPM team. Customer Service and Collaboration I continuously keep communication open within all operations in WI and often take the lead by scheduling meetings or conference calls with areas such as Communications, Compliance, and Submission Processing (SP) when procedural gaps are identified or a collaborated effort is needed. I ensured all of the IMF IRM content was updated and posted timely for the new filing season and I specifically oversaw the input of the ACA material to ensure it was accurate and available for the training and processing. I also lead my staff in several discussions and provided in-depth actions and suggestions to OPCI on how AM could providing â€Å"customer service† to the HCTC enrollment site. We worked with our AM HQ partners to create a new phone line for HCTC and provided the instructions to put in our IRM. I am the headquarters co-lead for the IRM Improvement team where we addressed multiple employee concerns and issues with the IRM formats and content. We have received nothing but posi tive feedback with the activities we have completed thus far from CSRs and the